Kashmir’s rapid slide towards cultural orthodoxy

Kashmir culture-The Dispatch

Few days back, there was a music concert organized at Srinagar’s famous Badami Bagh garden complex in Rainawari on the foot hills of Hari Parbat. The music concert, which among other performers hosted Kashmir’s famous female singer Shazia Bashir was suddenly attacked by a group of goons, who were apparently angered by what they perceived as open propagation of “shameful” and “un-Islamic” activities in a Muslim majority Kashmir. The venue was totally vandalized, chairs were thrown, stage and expensive music apparatus was damaged and artists like Shazia Bashir barely managed to escape with their lives.

So How did Kashmir reach such a bottom of cultural orthodoxy without anyone even questioning the same is a million-dollar question.

One of the most damaging aspects of the last thirty-year-old turmoil in Kashmir has been its rapid slide towards religious radicalism and nowhere has it been more pronounced than Kashmiri society’s physical transformation into orthodox Muslim community and its conservative attitude towards culture.

If one were to look at old photos of Kashmir from 1950s to early 1980s, one would find an entirely different kind of Kashmiri Muslim society than what we see today. The Arabization of Kashmir’s Muslim community that is today the dominant cultural identity marker was completely absent earlier. The Arabic middle eastern veils, burqas, abayas were either not that prominent or completely absent in large segment of Kashmiri Muslim population. The long orthodox beard worn by Muslim men was also very rare. In a way, while urban Kashmir was very liberal, progressive, modern and forward looking with most Muslim women and men not sporting veils, scarves or long beards, similarly rural Kashmir adhered to more traditional non-Arabic Kashmiri costume.

Things were even more relaxed in the field of music, dance, literary arts, movie, theatre, paintings etc. Take the example of Kashmir’s legendary modern abstract painter, Ghulam Rasool Santosh, whose abstract paintings on Hindu Shaivite concept of “tantra” made him and Kashmir famous all over the art world. His paintings continue to adorn Delhi’s modern art gallery.

But is it possible for a Kashmiri Muslim in today’s world to openly paint about Hindu Shaivite motifs without facing either social stigma or even threat to his life from religious radical elements? In 1970s Kashmiri Muslims could paint or write about Hindu themes, which is unthinkable today. The period from 1950s to early 1980s is also considered golden era in the blossoming of modern Kashmiri language literary traditions that includes not only poetry and literature but also critical literary writing, all of which came to abrupt halt in 1990, when there was a mass exodus of Kashmiri Pundit community from Srinagar.

The advent of turmoil also brought forced social orthodoxy and conservatism on Kashmiri Muslims, the first victims of which were Kashmir valley’s cinema halls. Kashmir used to be a thriving hub of movie production having its own Doordarshan station at a time when only few major Indian cities had TV stations. The cinema halls of Srinagar boasted of showing not only latest Bollywood movies but also English movies from UK and USA. Srinagar was the favorite “second home” of Bombay’s movie elite and mainland India’s business and cultural elite.

The per capita income of Kashmir valley was one of the highest at a time, when most of India was extremely poor. The tourism and hotel industry and infrastructure of Kashmir valley was at par with Bombay and Jaipur. The Kashmiri Muslim society at that time was welcoming of not only tourists from all over the world but also cultural events like theatres, stage performances, music concerts, movies from different parts of India and the world, which helped Kashmir to slowly develop its own film and theatre culture.

Kashmir already had a rich historic tradition of music, dance and poetry, which also got a big boost with opening up of Kashmir to rest of India and the world. Kashmiri sufi kalam, Kashmir rouf dance, Kashmiri traditional vocal and instrumental music all got a big impetus during 4 decades since 1947. But all of this came to a griding halt in 1990. And the Kashmiri Muslim society has since then gone into a regressive and backward & inward-looking shell.

While Kashmir has been a Muslim majority society for a long time, it was never an orthodox and conservative Muslim society. Songs, music and dance have been integral to the culture of Kashmiri Muslim society. Whether it is festivals, marriage or religious ceremonies, music has been an inseparable part of Kashmiri cultural heritage. But since the rise of religious orthodoxy, these have come under increased scrutiny and criticism by religiously radical elements, who have declared music, songs, dance and pretty much every cultural activity – “un-Islamic”. At a time, when Muslim countries like Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt and Turkey have thriving movie and TV industry, Kashmir’s Muslim actors and actresses have to face an immense social stigma to purse their artistic interests. “Dance” in particular has been declared against Kashmiri culture and Islam, when the fact is that dance forms like “Kathak” developed in the Muslim courts of North India and “raqs” forms an important government promoted art tradition in countries like Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey and Indonesia.

What is worst is that, even Kashmir’s religious musical traditions like sufiyana kalam has been declared “un-Islamic” along with traditional Kashmiri Eid songs and Eid Rouf dance merry making. There is obviously no question of allowing more modern artistic enterprises in present Kashmir like fashion designing, when Kashmir has been rocked by radical outrage against all girl music rock band “Pragash” and slut shaming of Kashmiri Muslim Bollywood actress Zaira Wasim for acting in Bollywood movies.

All, this unfortunately does not augur well for the image of Kashmir as a modern, progressive and liberal Muslim society. The fact is that Kashmiri Muslims are today known as religiously orthodox, conservative and radical Muslims just like those in Afghanistan, Somalia etc. It is an image that has become the defining portrayal of modern Kashmir and the tragedy is that nothing could be far from the truth. Kashmiri people and Kashmiri culture have always been forward looking and dynamic, which is why, despite small number of Kashmiri language speakers, Kashmir culture has been able to disproportionately assert its impact. We, as a Kashmiri society need to further revive this dynamic spirt of Kashmiri culture and not allow it to become victim of orthodoxy, which will lead to its oblivion.


The Dispatch is present across a number of social media platforms. Subscribe to our YouTube channel for exciting videos; join us on Facebook, Intagram and Twitter for quick updates and discussions. We are also available on the Telegram. Follow us on Pinterest for thousands of pictures and graphics. We care to respond to text messages on WhatsApp at 8082480136 [No calls accepted]. To contribute an article or pitch a story idea, write to us at [email protected] |Click to know more about The Dispatch, our standards and policies