Constituent Assembly Debates

June 7, 1952, when J&K official flag was introduced in Constituent Assembly

June 7, 1952, when J&K official flag was introduced in Constituent Assembly
June 7, 1952, when J&K official flag was introduced in Constituent Assembly

On June 7, 1952, Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah introduced the ‘official flag’ of Jammu and Kashmir in the Constituent Assembly during its session held at the Rajgarh Palaces, Srinagar.

The official flag was the same as party flag of the National Conference with addition of three stripes on it. Upon being called by the G.M. Sadiq, the President of the Constituent Assembly, Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah moved a resolution for adoption of the state flag. Along with resolution, he made a brief speech following which the flag was formally unfurled in the gallery of the Constituent Assembly.

Below is the transcript of Sheikh Abdullah’s speech and it is followed by speeches of some select members of the Constituent Assembly.

Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah: Sir, I rise to move the following resolution:  “Resolved that the National Flag of the Jammu and Kashmir State shall be rectangular in shape and red in colour with three equidistant vertical strip of equal width next to the staff and a white plough in the middle with its handle facing the strips. The ratio of width to the length of flag shall be 2:3.”

Sir, while framing the Constitution of the country the question of flag is of great importance. As a rule every nation of the world has its aspirations, ambitions, desires, aims and objects. Similarly the four million people of Kashmir have their own aspirations, ambitions and desires and to achieve them they have fought continuously and have never hesitated to make any sacrifice. The struggle of Kashmiris has taken an obvious turn for the last twenty years especially and whatever their ambitions and aspirations were they have made it manifest to the world to a great extent.

It was the 13th July 1931, when for the first time the people of Kashmir raised their voices against the system, which had trampled upon their hopes and desires. This voice made their aspiration obvious and the sacrifices they had to undergo in raising this voice, form part of history now, which I need not reiterate here. People marched on consistently and underwent various privations. They went ahead un-flatteringly. It will not be out of place to give a brief description of their desires and aspirations in this House. Kashmir has always been the cradle of humanism knowledge, unity, brotherhood and religious tolerance (Cheers).

A conspicuous thing in the history of Kashmir is, that it has never differentiated between high and low or between Hindus and Muslims, that is why in India, Kashmir had not only the status of a country but it was considered a place of religious pilgrimage. In knowledge, religion, brotherhood and tolerance Kashmir had a high position. Ever since Kashmir lost its freedom, various calamities befell it but the people of this country did not lose their spirit. In 1932 the people of the soil once again shock off their lethargy and rose to action in order to revive the traditions for which this country has always been famous. At last, the time came when ideal was to be achieved for which these sacrifices were made. The symbol of all the desires and aspirations of a country is its flag. When the old system, which has trampled upon the hopes of this country, is dying and the resplendid sun of freedom is rising in the horizons, it is necessary that a symbol for the country should be adopted, which should represent the hopes and desires of four million people. To achieve this end we had to struggle a lot. Men, women and children had to face bullets; they had to spend their time in dark prison cells; they had to pay fines and thousands had to bear flogging on their naked bodies. I do not want to take the time of the House repeating this long tale, but every noting that wants to carry forward its struggle for freedom must be prepared to undergo such sacrifices. It is a common saying that freedom is not attained by mere asking, but it has to be achieved, it is not attained by making demands but by making sacrifices. I feel pleasure in saying that for the lost 20 years people did not hesitate to undergo any sacrifice for the sake of freedom (Cheers) and that is why the representative of four million people of the State are here in this House today realizing their objectives and aspirations for which they have undergo sacrifices. As I have already stated that these aspirations are represented by a symbol. It is necessary that this House should also decide upon a symbol which will represent all those hopes and aspirations. So the Basic Principles Committee, after giving due consideration to all matters and keeping in view all those facts and desires, has proposed this flag. The more important thing kept in view related to the occupation of the people of this country generally, and their desires and needs. Before giving the details regarding this flag I would request the Hon’ble President to unfurl the flag, before the House.

The four million people of Jammu and Kashmir State are generally divided into two classes, out of whom one class mostly comprises agriculturists who earn their livelihood by working on the land and the second class represents the working class who work on the roadside. Masons, carpenters, shopkeepers and such other people also fall in this category who earn their livelihood by dint of labour. Among these four million people there are some who live without doing any work. The biggest class in our State is of peasants, and our history says that this class was in a bad plight. Keeping aside the old history we see the present ruling dynasty came here and purchased this country. This dynasty did not only purchase the forests, water springs and havens of this country but it purchased also the people of this country for five million rupees and thus became the lord (owners) of this country. At the time of payment of this sum, Maharaja Gulab Singh had no money. He approached a Bania and asked him if he was ready to lend him the sum. The Bania replied that if the money was given to him what would be his share in the deal (bargain). Maharaja Gulab Singh responded that his progeny will be ruler of this country and the Prime Minister-ship of the State will be inherited by the Bania’s prong. Besides this he accepted the partnership in land revenue in the proportion of 15:1, thus the deal was made amongst all three Banias,. The British were the big Bania who had come to India as such. They sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh and Gulab Singh made a deal with a third Bania. At last the people of Kashmir fell a prey to slavery because of this bargaining. In spite of all this the people of Kashmir rose in revolt but could not succeed because of the help rendered to Maharaja by the British and thus they lost their freedom. By and by an after thought struck, Maharaja Gulab Singh namely that another partner should be removed. He then told the other Bania that he would not pay the share of one anna per rupee to him out the land revenue but he would appoint his prime Minister from his family. He offered him lands wherever he liked in lieu of one anna share of the land revenue. As he chose the best land not only in Kashmir but in the Jammu Province and in every Tehsil of the State he became the owner of all the best areas of land in the State. Every son of the soil aware of the fact how they begin to oppress the peasants afterwards.

Sir, I have simply quoted an instance of how the peasants became slaves of the another slave. In the same way the big officials and the influential people got the privileges of big jagirs and chaks and entangled God ‘s humanity in the clutches of slavery. In short the plight to which the peasants were put and their present prevailing condition need no explanation.

Reports or tourists whether from India or abroad whosoever came here painted the picture of poor peasants life. The stories recorded in different books regarding the sad plight and destitution of these poor peasants are very painful. Even today any tourist either from India or foreign lands is moved to tears after witnessing this destitution. When the freedom movement started here it was necessary to rescue this downtrodden class from slavery and thus that attention of our movement was turned to the welfare of the peasantry. We raised a strong protest against the oppressions to which the peasant was subjected. In our country the prominent and salient symbol of a peasant in his plough and that is why the plough must from a part of the flag. National Conference the largest organization of this country had led the freedom struggle. As I have already stated, the most down-trodden class in the State was that of the peasants whether he was from Kashmir, Jammu, Ladakh or Karnah. His plight was extraordinarily bad and so it was necessary for the freedom movement that it should attend to rescue him from penury and destitution. Under these circumstances inclusion of a plough in the flag was necessary. This country is an agricultural country and we have no industries here which makes it all the more necessary to include the symbol of plough in the flag. Besides, the peasant being the backbone of the country, it is the main object of the movement to, better this lot and unless the economic, moral and social conditions of the peasants are improved and his status raised this country cannot progress. The plough is the symbol of a peasant and thus forms the salient feature of the flag. It should be our aim to raise it to heavenly heights.

The second salient feature in this flag is its red colour. This colour represents workers and laborers. The world has accepted the fact that the progress and welfare of the world depends on the toil lf a worker and a peasant.

Progress either in the field of science or elsewhere is mainly due to the worker and the peasant. The condition of a peasant and of a worker was very bad and the big people exploiting their work lived luxuriously and were busy in self indulgence while the class who contributed for their luxury was in a miserable bad plight. Another class is of workers and it is an admitted fact that unless workers and peasants work hard, the world cannot progress. The red colour represents the working classes and that is why the Basic Principles Committee has put forth the suggestion that the red colour should form the background. Sir, I have already stated that there are only these two classes in our country. Not only those who working factories are workers but those who work on the roadside or who make their both ends meet by working on shops morning till late in the evening also fall within this category. I see very few people who live by exploiting others labour and this House has exterminated such people so that such a class may not rise again. This was our aspiration and hope for which we underwent sacrifices for the last 20 years.

The third feature of the flag is that it has three vertical, parallel and equidistant lines. Our State is generally and geographically divided into three parts i.e. Jammu province, Kashmir and the Frontier Illaqas and the three vertical and equidistant lines obviously represent provinces of Jammu, Kashmir and Frontier (Cheers). These are some main symbols, which the Hon’ble Members would find in the flag. As I have already stated while moving the resolution that the symbols in the flag represent the aspirations, hopes, aims and objects of the people of any country for which the people of that soil have struggled it is necessary that while we are marching ahead towards freedom and the old system is dying the symbols of that old system should be exterminated (Cheers), the darkness which had been source of misfortune to four million people of the State should also banish, and the bright light should prevail everywhere (Cheers). Now it is for the House to decide the question of the symbol of the country in the present changing circumstances. With these words, I move the resolution before the House.


Almost half of the members of the Constituent Assembly spoke on the resolution. Below are the transcripts of some select speeches:


Hon’ble G.L. Dogra:- Sir, the resolution moved before the House has been fully explained by the Leader of the House and needs no elucidation. However, I shall speak a few words before the House. Every State has an idea and to represent this ideal a symbol is necessary. Sir, the ideal before us has been fully elucidated by the Leader of the House, and in this respect whatever the Committee had proposed, is before the House. A symbol is very important for a country so that everybody who visits the State should understand what the State stand s for. It is necessary for every countryman to know the ideal for which he is stiring. This symbol cautions every worker to safeguard the ideal from which he draws his inspiration. This fluttering symbol warns all its opponents to set themselves right failing which they will be chastised by the sentinels of the symbol. With these words I support the resolution.

Hon’ble President:- Does Hon’ble Mr. Beg want to speak?

Hon’ble Mirza Afzal Beg: Not just now, sir.

Assadullah Mir: – Sir, the Leader of the House has moved a motion in the House for adopting a flag for the country and I want to speak a few words in its support. Sir, the history stand witness to it that Kashmir was enslaved by foreign rules. Nations came one after the other and establish their domination against the wishes of four million people of Kashmir. They constructed palaces at the cost of these people. But the rule of these foreigners came to an end because of their misdeeds. The Kashmir people’s desires and aspirations were not realized for centuries and we were not able to terminate the foreign rule so as to establish representative Government of four million people here. Our past history bears testimony that Mughals, Pathans and Sikhs came here and to reiterate there history will take much time of the House. I will restrict my speech to that event of history when by the Treaty of Amritsar the British sold the Kashmir for Rs. 50,00000/- and the Dogra dynasty came to power. As the Leader of the House has just now described in detail all the miseries and sufferings which the foreign rule inflicted on the four million people of Kashmir. I am justified to say, that the foreigners who had just a little sympathy with us never hesitated to write, after witnessing the sad plight of people of Kashmir, that it is a paradise, a garden of Eden but the people of this place are naked, unarmed and oppressed. With your permission, Sir, I want to quote a few instances from the works of a historian, Dr.A Scott. Who has in 1920 made mention of the then prevailing conditions in very painful words which is a pathetic story from which the House will be able to judge the conditions of the people under the foreign rule which had condemned them to the abyss of darkness. Thus writes Dr/Scott.

“Alas of the record of Kashmir be read aright. it is a moving  tale of human sins, and there are not many races in the world  upon who the hand of fate has been laid so heavily as upon  those who inhabit those. Perhaps the first corner of the earth”. This was the condition of the people of Kashmir. I can say with pride that

13th July, 1931 was an auspicious day when under the leadership of Sher-IKashmir the sons of the soil raised their in voices for freedom. People had lost all patience with the foreign rule and its oppression and they raised the voices that: -“It is the will of the people and not the force which forms the basis of a State.”

People wanted that the Government should be founded on the will of the people and that the rules cannot thrust their rule on four million people of Kashmir against their wishes. It is a moving tale to enumerate the sufferings inflicted by the irresponsible system of Government on the freedom loving people of Jammu and Kashmir. A number of young men were thrown in dark prison cells; many were flagged and punitive taxes were imposed on them. This is a tale full of misfortune but the sentiment of freedom could in no way be suppressed and according to a versa on Dr. Iqbal these people marched ahead.

The era of democracy is fast approaching; wherever you find an old order, wipe it out. Our Qaid-i-Azam led the nation and in 1931 four million people of Kashmir gave his movement a practical shape. People from outside Kashmir co-operated with our movement and the Indian leadership also felt that Kashmiri people were actually oppressed and their struggle was based on justice. Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims of this country rallied round one banner under the leadership of Qaid-iHurriyat which resulted in the slow and steady advance of our Carvan and in 1947 i.e. in Kartik 2004, the ruler of the State was obliged to transfer power to the people. As the Qaid-i-Azam has stated freedom is not attained by mere asking but is achieved and so we had to undergo sacrifices. The Government machinery was in disorder and cracked. We again set it right. We worked day and night to set it right and marched on with the people’s voice. Now the fateful day has come when the true representatives of four million people have assembled at one place under your president ship to decide the future symbol of the nation.

Sir, in this House, various Committees were formed for different purposes and for this purpose too a Committee was formed whose report is before the House in the form of a resolution so that some specific symbol should be adopted for the country which will truly represent our culture and civilization.

Sir, today is an auspicious day when the Qaid-I-Azam has put forth before the House a proposal of nation’s flag in the form of a resolution and has thrown ample light on it. I, therefore, bowing before the flag will speak the following words (cheers).

Sir, this is a limited act that this symbol is being adopted for the Government of four million people of Kashmir and all these people belong to working class, whether they be peasants or workers. Labourers or workers on the roadside educated ones or officers, clerks or other workers all belong to this class. If there may be any employee from the Government who does not put physical labour but works mentally only, he too is a worker. All peasants, artisans and shopkeepers who earn their livelihood by means of business or an ironsmith who makes implements for a peasant all belong to the working class. So, there should be such a symbol, which should represent every class without any distinction of caste and creed. It is necessary that this flag should be the representative of the culture, civilization and social development of the country and it should represent the working class which comprises Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims of the country. I am justified to say that the red background of the flag has a specific reason. The flag could be of black, white or blue colour but this red and white colour represents that this is a flag is a million people who are mostly workers and besides; the colour of worker all the progressive countries is red. As the Quid-i-Azam has said that the symbol of the workers of the world is red, we have adopted this colour as the base of the flag. Ninety percent population of Kashmir consists of the peasantry and our daily needs are directly connected with them.

It is the peasant who feeds the nation and meets all the necessities. This class produces crop and builds the country by the help of the plough. Therefore, in the center of this flag a plough of white colour has been located. If you look at the wooden plough you will see its colour is not white put we have shown the plough on the flag as white, because our peasantry has come out of the darkness into the light. This plough is the representative of the peasant class whereas its white colour represents light, therefore, it is clear that our peasantry has bright future and so has our nation.

Then there are three equidistant and vertical white stripes, which represent three culture units of Frontier. Jammu and Kashmir geographically. We could assign green of some other colour to it but as our cultural regions are also enlightened, the colour of these stripes is white.

Sir, the symbol of culture, civilization and social development of four million people of this nation has been displayed before this house today and if the House adopts this symbol, I would request that this flag of the nation should be unfurled on all Government building from tomorrow. With these words I support the resolution moved by the Leader of the House.

Mirza Afzal Beg: Sir today is the day of rejoicings for the four million people of Jammu and Kashmir. The people of Kashmir have not carried on their struggle for the last twenty years only but the clues of their unorganized struggle in the past are also available. Today the four million people are enjoying the fruit of the sacrifices of our martyrs. I can in no way add anything to the resolution and to the feelings and sentiments expressed by the Leader of the movement and do the speeches elucidating the resolution. Today we are officially taking decisions regarding the flag. The significance of the different parts of the flag has been explained in the resolution. The background of the flag is red, which is the symbol of th  pious and placid blood of these thousands of martyrs who sacrificed their dearest live for establishing the political powers in the country and to liberate the people from slavery. Today we are saluting the souls of those men and women, old and young, who sacrificed their dear lives in 1931, 1932 and 1933. We feel happy because the voice they raised to liberate this nation has borne fruit to be witnessed in the form of the flag to adopt for which this resolution has been moved. As the Qaid-I-Azam has stated, every nation and country has a symbol, we also adopted a flag with plough as a symbol of our political organization in 1939.From the very out set it was the Programme of National Conference to redeem billions of our people from exploitation. Thus we adopted the symbol of plough to represent the toiling masses and under this banner we liberated our country. Today when we are adopting flag for our State.

Loyalty demands that we should adopt a symbol permanently to commemorate millions of people who have made sacrifices for the achievement of this freedom.

And as long as this party remains in power in the State, this symbol shall permanently be a memorial to those dear departed comrades who in different ways contributed their share to the freedom. Struggle. It is, therefore, essential that the nation which comprises the peasantry for whose deliverance unparallel sacrifices were made should adopt the plough as their symbol. It augurs well that this plough should become the symbol of the flag as it represents the peasant class. The Qaid-I-Azam said that our country is divided into three geographical units. In 1939 when a flag for the largest political party was adopted for the first time. It was a flag with a plough on it. As different nations adopt symbol to represent different sects on their flags, we in 1939 decided otherwise, became our flag did not represent different sects only. Our movement was not of communal nature though in the beginning it had a little communal touch, i.e our organization was known as Muslim Conference. But when a historian studies our ideal and Programme of those days, the demands which we put forth then, and all those things for which we made greatest sacrifices, he will reach the conclusion that this movement represented four million people without any distinction of caste and creed although it was called by the name of the Muslim Conference only. In 1939 when we adopted our own flag we decided not to represent different sects by different parts of our flag i.e. such and such part will represent a Hindu, such and such part will represent a Christian or a Harijan or such and such part will represent Muslims. It is fortunate that we discarded all such things from the very beginning and had no such conceptions or ideas.

According to this policy the flag we adopted did not represent any sect. The flag has three stripes and the Quid-I-Azam explained that these represent three geographical units. The area of Frontier Province is 58332 square miles and it is the biggest illaqa in respect of area. The area of Jammu Province is 12378 square miles. While that of Kashmir Province is 13,500 square miles and the total area of the State is 84,000 square miles, which comprises these three geographical and cultural units. We have represented all the three units as one place in a collective form on the flag. In his policy speech our Leader Qaid-IAzam has declared that every cultural unit shall have the full right to progress on the basis of self-determination and it will be provided with every facility for progress. Culture and unity of all these four million people will always be kept in view so that every child and every man being the master of his own fate would better the collective fate of the country. These strips on our flag represent the same movement. I would state in support of this resolution that this flag will be the flag of Jammu and Kashmir State and will have its jurisdiction over all those illaqas of Gilgit.Muzaffarabad , Mirpur and Poonch that are at present in the hands of enemy. This will be the flag of these oppressed brethren who have been separated from us by the enemy action for the last four years. Today we all pledge that unless this flag flies over Kohalla, Mirpur, Askardu and Gilgit etc. we will not rest (cheers). Our five to eight lakh brethren were separated from us by the false promises of plenty and winder scope of progress and now exploited and oppressed according to information pouring in from that side. If we pledge to unite the four million people of the State and to unfurl this flag every inch of the 84,000 square miles area of the state. We pledge to play in important role to add to the dignity of Jammu and Kashmir State. I am sure that I am expressing the sentiments of everybody from the State and I am expressing the sentiments of every workers of the National Conference right from a Leader to the rank and file.

When I state before the House that the people separated from us should rejoin us and take part in running effectively the administration of the country and leading it to progress as we the 75 members of the House are striving. I am sure that the God Almighty will accept our prayer. Our struggle for Naya Kashmir is not a local one but it is a struggle against every exploiter. We know that in the so called Azad Kashmir area people are exploited. Even today and the old money lending and Jagirdari system, which we have buried three years ago, is encumbering them as it was during the rule of Maharaja Hari Singh or his predecessors.

It is easy to incite and mislead people in the name of regions and other things, but this was not the custom with our Holy Prophet. It is altogether a different thing to serve humanity without and distinction of caste and creed and if our neighboring country does not share the feeling that the four million people of this country have the right to decide their destiny themselves, it is our bad luck.

The people living on this side of the ceasefire line have proved not only once but dozens of times that they are themselves the masters of their fate and that no power on earth-what to speak of Pakistan-can stop them (cheers). We will decide upon our flag ourselves. It is a folly to consider the flag a piece of cloth but this is the symbol of our movement, programme and freedom and in achieving this programme no power on earth can stop us. Today when we are taking a decision regarding our flag we reiterate that if Pakistan or other nations have not understood us it is their fault and if they think that Sher-i-Kashmir is deliberately hesitating to implement each and every item of Naya Kashmir it is misunderstanding. We are determined to implement each and every item of Naya Kashmir, under the leadership of Sher-i-Kashmir (cheers), and no power on earth can stop us from doing so, it is out earnest desire to liberate those who

were slaves for centuries so that no body should be oppressed henceforth This freedom shall not be only political, religious and social but it will be economic too and complete in every respect. Today while taking the decision regarding our flag, we once again want to declare to all the powers of the world. Pakistan and eminent partisans of the Security Council, that we will forge our destiny ourselves according to the principle of the right of self-determination. They may discuss things and pass resolutions but our struggle will go ahead without any hesitation and fear and we are sure that under the leadership of Sher-i-Kashmir we will reach our destination.

Before concluding my speech I would respectfully request every citizen of the country, whether he is a Hindu, a Muslim or a Sikh, whether he belongs to Jammu, Ladakh , Kargil or Poonch or any other place of the State, that no power on earth shall dominate us. We are poor, we have no army and ammunition , and we have no treasuries, but we have many a good quality in us and thus no power on earth can deprive us of our freedom provided all of us, living in far-flung areas of Ladakh , Kargil, Jammu ,Doda. Muzaffarabad and Mirpur unites together with one heart and soul. Than this flag shall fly upto eternity . Under this flag we have always gained honour and success, though we were penniless and resource less. Our Leader was called a worst type of rebel and for raising voice in support of the oppressed a punishment of nine years imprisonment was inflicted on him.

Our comrades were imprisoned in dirties possible jails. An ordinary soldier would hesitate to talk to us. At that time we unfurled this flag with the force of action, determination and honesty. The great kings who were called Siper-I-Saltnat-I-Englishia had to flee at least. What was the force that we possessed? It was honestly, action, determination and unity and we marched ahead. We cannot only set a golden example for India and Pakistan but we can by liberating the works and peasants from exploitation set an example for the world also. Provided we all Hindus, sikhs, Muslims of the far-flung areas of the State Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh , Muzaffarabad and Mirpur units together under one flag with one heart and soul and march ahead towards our destination. Today lakhs of rupees are distributed to create hatred amongst us. The temptation of bribes is given in different ways to end our great struggle led by the National Conference. Ways and means are adopted to break down our movement. Measures are being adopted to mislead people, but I would request all of my brethren that a greedy person cannot do any good to his country, nation or organization. History can produce hundreds of such example, which can make this fact clear that often self-seeking people have been offered bribes and given temptation to mislead people from the force of unity. But such people both who offered or accepted such bribes have been defeated and ruined. Today our nation and sense of patriotism makes only one demand that we should not enhance the difficulties of our leader but, as far as possible minimize them and, shaking of all the misunderstandings go ahead with the movement with unfaltering faith and honesty. Then only our flag with plough can fly in the heavens. We should think that Jammu is not for Jammu only. Kashmir is not for a Kashmiri only, and Ladakh is not for a Ladakhi only but a Balti from Kashmir is one with a backward peasant of Jammu and peasant from Kashmir is one with a backward peasant of Jammu and peasant from Kashmir is one with a backward peasant of Ladakh.

When we have developed such a sprit in us we can take back every inch of our State from the enemy and can bring back lakhs of our brethren who live at present in the enemy occupied area, with case and peace.

Sir, before concluding my speech I would pray that flag may always fly everywhere, it may fly continuously; every old man and every young man may fly it over the cottages of the poor and mansions of the rich: it may fly over schools, factories, Secretariat, roads, houses and places. Nay, it may fly over every inch of 84,000 square miles of area of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (Cheers).

Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad: Sir, allow me to speak a few words on this auspicious day. Today is the day of great importance in our national history. Today we see that dream being materialized which our leader Qaid-I-Azam SherI-Kashmir dreamt some twenty years back. Just up to this day it was simply a dream, but we were sure that a day will come, when a party which was called a rebellious party once and to which thousands of things were attributed, will come into power and fulfill the promises it has made to the nation. Out of these promises one is being fulfilled today. Sir, I am growing sentimental, I heard the speeches of my Hon’ble comrades and while listing to them the whole picture of the events from 1931 to the present day passed before my eyes.

I remember the 13th of July, when bullets were showered. I remember the 21st of September 1933 and the years of 1934, 1935, 1936, 1938 and 1946 when thousands sacrificed their lives to carry forward the movement. I recollect all the oppressions and torture, which the nation suffered; and especially I remember the day when Qaid-I-Azam pledged to a dying martyr that he has done his duty and that they would shoulder the responsibility for marching onwards. Thanks to the Almighty that we have fulfilled our promise (Cheers).

Thousands of efforts were made to annihilate the movement but it always developed and went forward. In 1947 the imperialist powers of the world conspired together and determined to do away with this movement” firstly by arranging invasion of Kashmir but our movement was based on honesty and sincerity and the nation not checked the enemies of the movement but carried the movement forward.  I fully remember that during this invasion so many worthy sons of the soil sacrificed their lives. Amongst these the sacrifices of martyrs. Sherwani Sadhu Sing, Master Abdul Aziz, Brigadier Rajinder Singh, Captain Prem Paul Singh, Mr. Ismail and Mr. Zadu are before my eyes.

The colour of this flag is not an ordinary one but is dyed with the blood of these martyrs. I dare to say that whatever they did, it was for the freedom of the country and the nation. They performed their duty and passed away. Today it is our responsibility to give to the country a flag in their name dyed in their blood, as a symbol. This is a great and an auspicious thing. But when we feel joyous that a day has come to adopt this flag of free Kashmir for the nation. We have to look to our responsibilities as well. It is our responsibility that we should never see the flag flown low but should always keep it flying very high and add to its grandeur and honour. To end our movement conspiracies are being hatched in every corner of the world. Imperialists even today are designing to destroy our movement. They have not been attached by the beauty of Kashmir and by its green field and tulip gardens only but to put an end to our struggle, which has been going on for the last twenty years. Conspiracies are hatched in the big mansions of the world to divide it and to hold Zonal plebiscite. Efforts are being made to paint our movement as a communal one. We should keep in view all such things and we should realize our responsibility. With full determination we are giving this flag to the people of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. This is the flag we are giving to the nation as a national trust and all of you, friends, are its trustees. Every responsibility lies on you. Thus when we give this flag to the nation we should realize our responsibilities also and then take on oath that even if the world join together, our movement will not be defeated and our flag will never be lowered. (Cheers).

Today this flag is not of any single individual but this is common flag of the whole country. I know it fully well that our Qaid-I-Azam has not or is not devoting only 24 hours a day to the cause of and freedom but has devoted every movement of his life to this cause.

Today Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah is not giving you this flag in the name of his person but as a trust. He is giving you this flag in the name of those oppressed and martyrs who were subjected to untold miseries. As for as the sacrifices that we made to flight the invasion of 22nd of October are concerned, the name of Brig, Usman is taken in this connection but I dare to say that thousand of others also were martyred besides Brig Usman. They too dies in the battlefield to save our and freedom. Today we must be able to realize the responsibilities which have devolved on us and we should promise that we will fight all the satanic powers of the world, not to speak of Pakistan alone. We maintain the glory of this flag at any cost.

Comrades, today is the day of rejoicing and history day as well. The peasant of this country will prosper, but besides. I want to state that there are dangers too. To give flag, to draw strips on it or to deliver speeches about it, is an easy task. The secret underlying it is the strength of our movement. It must be an article of faith with us to safeguard and defend the movement. It should be our duty to carry forward the movement for freedom. In every respect we must have faith in our Qaid-I-Azam. Unless we have blind faith in anything we cannot derive any pleasure by merely giving the flag to the world. Let us make a firm determination. With a sincere and responsible mind, and then we should make some claim. To save the honour of this flag all of us must be prepared to brave any lot like Brig. Rajinder Singh. We must be prepared to face bullets like Sherwani; we must be prepared to sacrifice every part our body like Master Abdul Aziz who held the flag in his hand and when his arm was cut he held it with his teeth and did not let it fall down; and only when his teeth were broken did the flag drop down; if any misfortune comes we shall not see our flag pulled down low, in this flag there is unity there is love and in it we have the message of brotherhood and peace for million people of Kashmir. This is the flag of the people living on both sides of the ceasefire line. As my comrade Beg Sahib has stated we will be successful only when flag will be flown on the other side of the cease-fire line: when this flag will fly on the lofty mountain of Gilgit, on the vast field of Mirpur and poonch and on the mansions of Bimber. It is only then that we will think we have been successful in our mission. We fought back the invasion of 22nd October and if today the same determination of hoisting at Gilgit. Mirpur and Bimber is demonstrated, I am sure, that by the grace of God this flag will fly over those peaks. But this is possible only when we possess determination, brotherhood and unity.

Our State comprises three geographical units i.e., Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. These are three parts of one body. If Kashmir is great land Jammu too has its grandeur. And if Leh holds its head high, both Kashmir and Jammu should feel proud of it. God forbid, if misfortune befalls any of the three, no part will remain unaffected. All these units are the parts of a body. Look to me, I have received an ordinary hurt and I am unable to walk. It is not correct if Jammu people think that they are represented by one stripe; if Mr. Mirza Afzal Beg and Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad think that they are represented by another stripe; and if Mr. Koshak Bakula and Syed Ibrahim Shah think in the same fashion. We should know that all the three stripes one united country.

Unless people take these stripes as one whole, the grandeur of the flag will get impaired. This is the flag for the whole State i.e. Leh, Zanskar, Jammu and Kashmir. This will fly over the major portion of the country, but our ambition and that of Qaid-I-Azam should be that it should fly in every corner of the pre-raid Kashmir. The people living on the other side of the ceasefire line should also be benefited. Only then shall I feel that we have succeeded in our mission. There are dangers and we should be prepared to face these dangers. We should face them not by mere talk but by action. When we make such a determination, I will consider this day as a day of rejoicing, day of great Id. I tell you should make people understand its significance and convert them to your point of view.

If any danger crops up it is only we, the 75 members of this House who will have to fight it, but we will have four million people also at our back. With these words, Sir, I support the resolution.


Krishan Dev Seth: Sir, “Red flag, the greatness of the worker and of he peasant. It is the greatness of the Man himself. Red revolution is not a conspiracy of rebellion. For the redness of the martyrs is a title by itself.”

In reality the flag of any nation is the symbol of the class that is in power in the country and it represents the system established in the country. Today when the flag of peasants and workers is before us, it throws I right on the ideal, which was before our people twenty years back. It was the ideal of uprooting the exploitation and not that the right of rule should vest in some particular persons.

When we unfurl this flag the picture that obtained twenty years before comes before us, when blood was sucked from the peasant and the people in power would use it for their self-gratification, and would construct mansions.

Undoubtedly when we unfurl this flag we say to the world that exploitation of worker and peasant has ended. We make our ideals clear to the world through it may look at our ideal from a different angle. Our idea is quite clear. We want to free the worker and peasant from exploitation and thus our flag denotes the unity of workers and peasants. Sir, we have adopted this flag only taking these things into consideration. The hatred among different nations of the world is the basis of war and that is why a nation rules over another nation and usurps her rights.

Prior to this, backward nationalities were suppressed in the State. Today the three vertical and parallel stripes on the flag denote that the three communities of the State are equal and no one has the right to dominate the other. Sir, the motion regarding adoption of the flag has been put before the House officially, but before this, it alone was a lace to aspirations. To keep this flag up our young man had to go into jails; they had to be the target of bullets; they had to bear flogging and after all because of this flag we fought communal hatred in the whole India (cheers). When in India communal hatred was in full swing and all the great leaders yielded to Muslim Communalism, we fought the evil (cheers).

We fought the evil (cheers). We fought the evil when autocracy was in power when in India the right of self-determination was overlooked, and when leaders wanted to live under the autocratic rule of Nawabs, Rajas and Maharajas of different States we raised the slogan of “Quit Kashmir” movement demanding that States people should get the right to self-determination. We also demanded that the fight of accession should not be granted to any other element other than the people of the State. This right cannot be given to India, Pakistan or America but it can only be granted to four million people of Kashmir. (Cheers).

In 1947, Pakistan at the instigation of the Anglo-American tried to trample the people of the State and invaded Kashmir. At that time too an attempt was made to pull down our flag but the sacrifices of Martyrs like Sherwani, Master Abdul Aziz and Brigadier Rajinder Singh saved the country and preserved the honour of the flag. Today when power is in our hands we have not shirked any sacrifices. Even today reactionary elements are there who try to pull down this flag and to face such elements sacrifices are even now required. It will be an injustice not to make mention of them. Only some days back Thakur Inder Singh breathed his last while fighting against the Jagirdar class. Even today efforts are being made by Jagirdars and capitalists to pull down this flag. Not only in Pakistan but in India also such reactionary forces are present who want to pull down our flag.

The Anglo-American block is also opposed to our flag so that they may be able to carry out their imperialistic designs and here too their agents are trying to create trouble and pull down our flag. I remember a verse by Dr. Iqbal, which reads:  “Race, nationality, church, kingdom, civilization and colour. Capitalism has well selected its dupes”.

Even today efforts are being made to disrupt our movement in the same way as described in the above verse. Efforts are being made to pull down this red flag, with which the hopes of all the workers of the world are associated so that their designs should succeed. At this stage we have to think and face their conspiracies so that this flag should keep flying over the Himalayan peaks always.


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June 7, 1952, when J&K official flag was introduced in Constituent Assembly