N95 masks may be the most effective at reducing the spread of the novel coronavirus, according to a study by researchers, including those from the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), which suggests that any mask is better than no mask at preventing COVID-19.
The researchers noted that airborne transmission by respiratory aerosol droplets produced during coughing and sneezing is the dominant mode of spreading for infectious diseases such as COVID-19.
Padmanabha Prasanna Simha, from ISRO, and Prasanna Simha Mohan Rao, from the Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Research in Karnataka, experimentally visualised the flow fields of coughs under various common mouth covering scenarios.
The, study published in the journal Physics of Fluids, found N95 masks to be the most effective at reducing the horizontal spread of a cough.The N95 masks reduced a cough’s initial velocity by up to a factor of 10, and limit its spread to between 0.1 and 0.25 meters, the researchers said.
An uncovered cough, in contrast, can travel up to three metres, but even a simple disposable mask can bring this all the way down to 0.5 metres, they said.“If a person can reduce the extent of how much they contaminate the environment by mitigating the spread, it’s a far better situation for other healthy individuals who may enter places that have such contaminated areas,” Simha said.
Rao and Simha noted that density and temperature are intricately related, and coughs tend to be warmer than their surrounding area.They utilised a technique called schlieren imaging, which visualises changes in density, to capture pictures of voluntary coughs from five test subjects.By tracking the motion of a cough over successive images, the team estimated velocity and spread of the expelled droplets.